Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age.

The disease is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that build up in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. Its symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, bruising and bleeding, and increased risk of infection. The cause of AML is unknown and the disease is typically fatal within weeks or months if untreated. Treatments include chemotherapy, and some people may receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The goal of upfront therapy for AML is to achieve a state of "complete response" (or CR), whereby the hematologic and clinical features of the disease are controlled. Nonetheless, essentially all patients in CR still harbor evidence of minimal residual disease (MRD). To date, other than an allogeneic HSCT (which is in principle an immunotherapy), no therapies have been proven to accord any meaningful benefit after patients achieve a CR status. Once the disease relapses, then 'second-line' therapies can be given, but even these have very limited positive clinical impact.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by malignant plasma cells, and its cause is unknown.

The overgrowth of plasma cells in the bone marrow crowds out normal blood-forming cells, causing low blood counts and anemia (a shortage of red blood cells). Multiple myeloma can also cause a shortage of platelets and lead to increased bleeding and bruising, along with problems fighting infections. The cancer causes a host of organ problems and symptoms, including fatigue, bone pain, fractures and kidney failure. Treatment includes drugs that modulate the immune system, chemotherapy, , radiation and stem cell transplants (SCT's). Median survival is about three years though some patients have a life expectancy of 10 years. Despite significant therapeutic advances in the management of MM, the prognosis of patients with high risk cytogenetics at the time of diagnosis remains quite poor, even when they successfully complete an ASCT, especially if they continue to have evidence of MRD.

Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related cancer that forms on the protective tissues that cover many of the internal organs.

The most common area affected is the lining of the lungs and abdomen though it can also form around the lining of the abdomen or heart. Most cases are traced to job-related exposures to asbestos and it can take around 40 years between exposure and cancer formation. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, a swollen abdomen, chest wall pain, cough, feeling tired, and weight loss. Mesothelioma is generally resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, while long term survival is rare, even in cases where aggressive upfront debulking multimodality therapy (extirpative surgery, chemotherapy and in some cases radiotherapy) are used. Typical survival is between 12 and 16 months, although select patients who complete a full course of indicated chemotherapy can survive up to 21 months.

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